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Historical capitals of China

07 July 2015
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There are traditionally four historical capitals of China, collectively referred to as the "Four Great Ancient Capitals of China" (中国四大古都; 中國四大古都; Zhōngguó Sì Dà Gǔ Dū). The four are Beijing, Nanjing, Luoyang and Xi'an (Chang'an). As more new archaeological evidence began to be uncovered since the 1930s, other historical capitals have been included in the list. The phrase "Seven Ancient Capitals of China" now includes – in addition to the earlier four – Kaifeng (added in the 1920s), Hangzhou (added in the 1930s), and Anyang (added after 1988). In 2004, the China Ancient Capital Society officially included Zhengzhou as the eighth historical capital in light of new archaeological findings dating from the early Shang dynasty.

 
  • Acheng District of the city of Harbin was the capital of the Jin dynasty from 1115 to 1153. It was called Shangjing (上京; Shàngjīng; "Upper Capital") or Huining Prefecture at the time. It was destroyed in 1157 and reestablished as a secondary capital in 1173.
  • Anyang was the capital of the Shang dynasty roughly from 1600 BC until 1046 BC. It was called Yin (; Yīn).
  • Beijing (also romanised Peking), literally meaning "Northern Capital", previously also known as Beiping, was the capital of various dynasties and governments, including:
  • The state of Yan (11th century BC – 222 BC) in the Spring and Autumn period, when it was called Ji (; ; ).
  • The Liao dynasty (907–1125), when it was a secondary capital called Yanjing (燕京; Yānjīng; "Capital of Yan").
  • The Jin dynasty, from the 1160s to 1215, when it was called Zhongdu ("Central Capital").
  • The Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), when it was called Dadu (大都; Dàdū; "Great Capital") in Chinese,[1] Daidu (direct translation from Chinese) in Mongolian, and Khanbaliq ("city of the Khan") in the Turkic languages. Marco Polo called it Cambuluc.
  • The Ming dynasty, from 1403 to 1644, when it was called Shuntian Prefecture (顺天府; 順天府; Shùntiān Fǔ) and then later simply as Jingshi (京师; 京師; Jīngshī; "Capital").
  • The Qing dynasty, from 1644 to 1912.
  • The Beiyang government of the Republic of China, from 1912 to 1927.
  • The capital of the People's Republic of China since 1949.
  • Changchun or (Shinjin) was the capital of Manchuria during the Japanese occupation in WWII.
  • Chengdu was the capital of the state of Shu Han (AD 221–263) during the Three Kingdoms period. It was also briefly the seat of the Nationalist government of the Republic of China in late 1949 towards the end of the Chinese Civil War.
  • Chongqing (also romanised Chungking) was the provisional capital of the Nationalist government of the Republic of China during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), and briefly the seat of the Nationalist government in late 1949 towards the end of the Chinese Civil War.
  • Datong was the capital of the Northern Wei dynasty from AD 398 to 493.
  • Guangzhou (also romanised Canton) was the capital of:
  • The Nanyue Kingdom (204–111 BC). More specifically, the Nanyue capital was in Guangzhou's Panyu District.
  • The Nationalist government of the Republic of China, before 1928, and in 1949 towards the end of the Chinese Civil War.
  • Hangzhou (also romanised Hangchou or Hangchow) was the capital of:
  • The Wuyue Kingdom (907–978) during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
  • The Southern Song dynasty, from 1127 to 1276, when it was called Lin'an (临安; 臨安; Lín'ān).
  • Fenghao, located near present-day Xi'an, was the capital of the Western Zhou dynasty from 1046 BC to 771 BC.
  • Kaifeng was the capital of various dynasties, including:
  • The Later Liang dynasty during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, from AD 913 to 923.
  • The Later Jin dynasty during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, in AD 937.
  • The Later Han dynasty (AD 947–951) during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
  • The Later Zhou dynasty (AD 951–960) during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
  • The Northern Song dynasty (960–1127), when it was called Bianjing (汴京; Biànjīng).
  • Luoyang was the capital of various dynasties, including:
  • The Eastern Zhou dynasty, from 510 BC to 314 BC.
  • The Eastern Han dynasty from AD 25 to 190 and then briefly in AD 196.
  • The state of Cao Wei (AD 220–265) during the Three Kingdoms period.
  • The Western Jin dynasty, from AD 265 to 311.
  • The Northern Wei dynasty from AD 493 to 534.
  • Wu Zetian's Zhou dynasty from AD 690 to 705.
  • The Later Tang dynasty during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, from AD 923 to 936.
  • The Later Liang dynasty during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, from AD 907 to 913.
  • Nanjing (also romanised Nanking), literally meaning "Southern Capital", was the capital of various dynasties and governments, including:
  • All the Six Dynasties from AD 220 to 589, when it was called Jianye (建業; Jiànyè) or Jiankang (建康; Jiànkāng). The Six Dynasties were:
  • Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period, from AD 229 to 265, and then from AD 266 to 280.
  • Eastern Jin dynasty, from AD 317 to 420.
  • Liu Song dynasty (AD 420–479)
  • Southern Qi dynasty (AD 479–502)
  • Liang dynasty, from AD 502 to 552, and then from AD 555 to 557.
  • Chen dynasty (AD 557–589)
  • The Southern Tang dynasty (AD 937–976) during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period
  • The Ming dynasty, from 1368 to 1644, when it was called Yingtian Prefecture (应天府; 應天府; Yìngtiān Fǔ)
  • The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (1851–1864) during the Taiping Rebellion in the Qing dynasty, when it was called Tianjing (天京; Tiānjīng; "Heavenly Capital").
  • The Nationalist government of the Republic of China from 1928 to 1937, and then de jure since 1946 (de facto from 1946 to 1949).
  • The Reorganised National Government of the Republic of China (1940–1945), a pro-Japanese collaborationist government headed by Wang Jingwei during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
  • Taipei in Taiwan has been the de facto capital of the Republic of China since 1949.
  • Wuhan was the capital of a government formed by Wang Jingwei and leftist members of the Kuomintang in 1927. It opposed the Nationalist government led by Kuomintang leader Chiang Kai-shek.
  • Xanadu/Shangdu (上都; Shàngdū; "Upper Capital"), located northwest of present-day Dolon Nor in Inner Mongolia, was the summer capital of the Yuan dynasty. It was destroyed in 1369.
  • Xi'an (also romanised Sian), previously called Chang'an, and including its surrounding areas in present-day Shaanxi Province, was the capital of various dynasties, including:
  • The Western Zhou dynasty, from around 1046 BC to 771 BC. See also Fenghao.
  • The state of Qin (9th century  BC – 221 BC) and the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC). The Qin capital, called Xianyang (simplified Chinese: 咸阳; traditional Chinese: 咸陽; pinyin: Xiányáng), was located near present-day Xi'an. It was destroyed in 206 BC.
  • The Western Han dynasty, from 206 BC to AD 9.
  • The Xin dynasty (AD 9–23)
  • The Eastern Han dynasty, from AD 190 to 195.
  • The Western Jin dynasty, from AD 312 to 316.
  • The state of Former Zhao during the Sixteen Kingdoms period, from AD 318 to 329.
  • The State of Former Qin during the Sixteen Kingdoms period, from AD 351 to 385.
  • The State of Later Qin during the Sixteen Kingdoms period, from AD 384 to 417.
  • The Western Wei dynasty (AD 535–557)
  • The Northern Zhou dynasty (AD 557–581)
  • The Sui dynasty, from AD 581 to 605.
  • The Tang dynasty, from AD 618 to 684, and then from AD 705 to 904.
  • Ye, located within the present-day city of Handan, was the capital of the Eastern Wei dynasty from AD 534 to 550, and the Northern Qi dynasty (AD 550–577).
  • Yinchuan was the capital of the Western Xia from 1038 to 1227, when it was called Xingqing (simplified Chinese: 兴庆; traditional Chinese: 興慶; pinyin: Xīngqìng).

Chronology

Dynasty / Government Capital Period Notes
Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors Nüwa      
Youchao      
Suiren      
Zhurong      
Fuxi Chen
c. 2852–2737 BC  
Shennong / Yan Emperor Lu
c. 2737–2699 BC  
Yellow Emperor Xuanyuan
軒轅
c. 2699–2588 BC  
Taihao Wanqiu
宛丘
   
Shaohao Qiongsang
窮桑
c. 2587–2491 BC  
Gonggong      
Zhuanxu Gaoyang
高陽
c. 2490 BC – 25th century BC  
Diqiu
帝丘
c. 25th century BC – 2413 BC  
Ku Diqiu
帝丘
c. 2412 BC – 24th century BC  
Bo
c. 24th century BC – 2343 BC  
Zhi Qinghua
清化
c. 2343–2333 BC  
Yao Pingyang
平陽
c. 2333–2234 BC  
Shun Puban
蒲坂
c. 2233–2184 BC  
Xia dynasty Daxia
大夏
Gun  
Song
 
Yangcheng
陽城
Yu[2]  
Yangzhai
陽翟
Yu, Qi, Taikang  
Chu
Yi  
Qiongshi
窮石
Yi, Hanzhuo  
Zhen
Taikang, Zhongkang  
Diqiu
帝丘
Xiang, Shaokang  
Yuan
Zhu  
Laoqiu
老丘
Zhu to Jiong  
Xihe
西河
Jin to Fa  
Zhen
Jie  
Henan
河南
Jie[3]  
Shang dynasty Bo
Tang[3]  
Fan
Xie  
Dishi
砥石
Zhaoming  
Shang
Zhaoming  
Shangqiu
商邱
Xiangtu  
Foot of Mount Tai
泰山麓
Xiangtu  
Shangqiu
商邱
Xiangtu  
Yin
Shanghou  
Shangqiu
商邱
Yinhou  
Bo
"西"亳
Tang  
Xiao
Zhongding  
Xiang
Hedanjia  
Xing
Zuyi  
Bi
Zuyi  
Yan
Nangeng  
Yin
Pangeng  
Zhou dynasty Western Zhou dynasty Zongzhou
宗周
1046 BC – 771 BC Western capital
Chengzhou
成周
1046 BC – 771 BC Eastern capital
Eastern Zhou dynasty Chengzhou
成周
770 BC – 367 BC  
Henan
河南
367 BC – 256 BC capital of the Western Zhou dynasty
Gong
367 BC – 249 BC capital of the Eastern Zhou dynasty
Qin dynasty Xiquanqiu
西犬丘
   
Pingyang
平陽
– 677 BC  
Yong
677 BC –  
Jingyang
涇陽
– 383 BC  
Yueyang
櫟陽
383 BC – 250 BC  
Xianyang
咸陽
350 BC – 207 BC  
Han dynasty Western Han dynasty Luoyang
雒陽
202 BC  
Yueyang
櫟陽
202 BC – 200 BC  
Chang'an
長安
200 BC – 8 BC  
Xin dynasty Chang'an
長安
AD 8–23  
Han dynasty Eastern Han dynasty Luoyang
雒陽
AD 25–190  
Chang'an
長安
191–195  
Xu
196–220  
Three Kingdoms period Cao Wei Luoyang
洛陽
220–265  
Shu Han Chengdu
成都
221–263  
Eastern Wu Jianye
建業
227–279  
Jin dynasty Western Jin dynasty Luoyang
洛陽
265–313  
Chang'an
長安
313–316  
Eastern Jin dynasty Jiankang
建康
317–420  
Northern dynasties Northern Wei Pingcheng
平城
386–493  
Luoyang
洛陽
493–534  
Ye
534–550 capital of Eastern Wei
Chang'an
長安
535–557 capital of Western Wei
Northern Qi Ye
550–577  
Northern Zhou Chang'an
長安
557–581  
Southern dynasties Liu Song dynasty Jiankang
建康
420–479  
Southern Qi Jiankang
建康
479–502  
Liang dynasty Jiankang
建康
502–557  
Chen dynasty Jiankang
建康
557–589  
Sui dynasty Dongdu
東都
581–618  
Daxing
大興
581–618 auxiliary capital
Tang dynasty Chang'an
長安
618–690  
Luoyang
洛陽
657–690 auxiliary capital
Wu Zetian's Zhou dynasty Luoyang
洛陽
690–705  
Tang dynasty Chang'an
長安
705–904  
Luoyang
洛陽
705–736 auxiliary capital
Luoyang
洛陽
904–907  
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period Later Liang Dongdu
東都
907–923  
Later Tang Dongdu
東都
923–936  
Later Jin Dongjing
東京
936–947  
Later Han Dongjing
東京
947–950  
Later Zhou Dongjing
東京
951–960  
Song dynasty Northern Song dynasty Dongjing
東京
960–1127  
Southern Song dynasty Nanjing
南京
1127–1129 After the fall of Dongjing, Zhao Gou declares himself Emperor Gaozong in Henan
Yangzhou
楊州
1129–1130 Flight of Emperor Gaozong during the Jin invasion of the Yangtze Delta in 1129–1130.
Zhenjiang
鎮江
Lin'an
臨安
Yuezhou
越州
Mingzhou
明州
Dinghai
定海
Off the coast Taizhou, Wenzhou
"海上朝廷"
Zhang'an
章安
Yuezhou
越州
Lin'an
臨安
1130–1276 Song court settles in Lin'an for 146 years
Fuzhou
福州
1276–1277 Flight of Emperor Duanzong along the southeast coast following the fall of Lin'an in 1276.
Guangzhou
廣州
1277–1278
Guanfuchang
官富場
1278
Gangzhou
碙州
Emperor Bingzong succeeds Duanzong on Lantau Island in modern Hong Kong
Yashan
涯山
1278–1279 Song court makes last stand off the coast of Yashan
Liao dynasty Shangjing
上京
907–1120  
Nanjing
南京
1122–1123  
Tokmok
虎思斡耳朵
1134–1218  
Jin dynasty Shangjing
上京
1115–1153  
Zhongdu
中都
1153–1214  
Nanjing
南京
1214–1234  
Western Xia Xingqing
興慶
1038–1227  
Yuan dynasty
Shangdu
上都
May 1264 – 1267  
Dadu
大都
1267[4] – August 1368  
Shangdu
上都
August 1368 – 1369  
Ming dynasty Nanjing
南京
23 January 1368 – 2 February 1421  
Beijing
北京
2 February 1421 – 25 April 1644  
Nanjing
南京
1644 – 1645  
Fuzhou
福州
1645 – 1646  
Zhaoqing
肇慶
1646 – 25 April 1662  
Later Jin Feiala
費阿拉
1587–1603  
Hetuala
赫圖阿拉
1603–1619  
Jiefan
界凡
1619 – September 1620  
Sarhu
薩爾滸
September 1620 – April 1621  
Dongjing
東京
April 1621 – 11 April 1625  
Shengjing
盛京
11 April 1625 – 1636  
Qing dynasty Shengjing
盛京
1636 – 30 October 1644  
Beijing
北京
30 October 1644[5] – 12 February 1912[6]  
Republic of China Nanjing
南京
1 January 1912 – 2 April 1912 Provisional Government
Beijing
北京
2 April 1912 – 30 May 1928 Beiyang government[6]
Fengtian
奉天
30 May 1928 – 29 December 1928 Beiyang government
Guangzhou
廣州
1 July 1925 – 21 February 1927 Guangzhou Nationalist Government
Wuhan
武漢
21 February 1927 – 19 August 1927 Wuhan Nationalist Government[7]
Nanjing
南京
18 April 1927 – 20 November 1937 the Nanjing decade[6]
Luoyang
洛陽
29 Jan 1932 – 1 December 1932  
Beijing
北平
9 September 1930 – 23 September 1930 Beiping Nationalist Government
Taiyuan
太原
23 September 1930 – 4 November 1930 Beiping Nationalist Government
Guangzhou
廣州
28 May 1931 – 22 December 1931 Guangzhou Nationalist Government
Chongqing
重慶
21 November 1937 – 5 May 1946 during the Second Sino-Japanese War[6]
Nanjing
南京
30 March 1940 – 10 August 1945 Wang Jingwei Government
Nanjing
南京
5 May 1946 – Present (de jure) (de facto until 23 April 1949)[6]  
Guangzhou
廣州
23 April 1949 – 14 October 1949 during the Chinese Civil War
Chongqing
重慶
14 October 1949 – 30 November 1949 during the Chinese Civil War
Chengdu
成都
30 November 1949 – 27 December 1949 during the Chinese Civil War
Xichang
西昌
27 December 1949 – 27 March 1950 during the Chinese Civil War
Taipei
台北
10 December 1949 – Present (de facto)  
People's Republic of China Beijing
北京
1 October 1949 – Present  

 

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