Different styles or schools of Chinese Kung-fu as Tui Shou (pushing hands) in Tai Ji Quan, Da Shou(keeping one’s hand put up on the one of his opponent) in Fujian He Quan (crane boxing) and Li Shou (touching hands) in Wing Chun Quan, all have their various training methods. Their principles are supposed to be the same: to increase your feeling abilities and to decrease your responsing time in actual combating and to learn when and where your opponent's balance is changing that would be the point you are attacking.
There are Dan Tui (single pushing), Shuang Tui (double pushing), Ding Bu (still standing) and Huo Bu (moving stepping) in Tai Ji’s Tui Shou. The basic eight principal movements in Tui Shou applied are named Peng, Lv, Ji, An, Cai, Lie, Zhou, and Kao. The common objective of them is changing your posture and the center of your gravity in moving following your opponent's each movement. You must take notice that you are the follower and you must stick onto your opponent's hands or arms or body neither lose the point nor being over. The key is to Ting Jin (to listen his attacking force) getting where the center of his gravity possibly should be or really is. In a split second, you should use the frame such that your attacking point is in line with the center of his gravity. Then you can mobilize your strength to combine it with his force to lift his feet up from the ground. In practicing, every push made by you is a circle, half of it is to defense and the other half is for attack. This is, in fact, very scientific. A famous General Qi Jiguang in Ming Dynasty said, "You don't act or block until the proper time exist but make one single movement to achieve your purpose."
Tai Chi traditional books always require you that "first being familiar with the movements in order to learn how to Dong Jin (to understand your strength and the other) from both sides, then you can act before his move." Yi Jing (the book of changes) also mentions the same principle: "When your Yin and Yang are actually existed but not known by others, you will be moving ahead of your opponent." The book of Lao Zhi used the term "to achieve intelligent." He said that "knowing others well, one would be quite wise in brightness while you know yourself will be much clear in minding." In short, your main purpose is to know the strong and weak forces sent by your opponent so that just a little effect will be enough to work against a strong one during Tui Shou. You will act right if you know your opponent's next movement while he doesn't know yours. Da Shou in He Quan is the same as Tai Ji Tui Shou having got Dan Da (single putting up), Shuang Da (double putting up), Ding Bu and Huo Bu. In Shuang Da Shou, both you and you opponent are facing each other with all your hands laid on the others circumvolving in defending and attacking.Playing He Quan should be emphasizing and focusing on the mid-line of your opponent's body. In the Da Shou process, your purpose is to attack the mid-line no matter who move first. Your attacking should be aiming at your opponent's body but not his hands. Your ultimate goal is to make him fall down on the ground suddenly and swiftly. The technique is supposed to catch the beginning of you opponent's force punched at you but to eliminate the force when it is weaker or vanished at its ending by using your touching, minding and understanding of the touched strength and hitting forces made both by you and him. General Qi also said the same thing as being hard enough before the force made by your opponent but soft after it Quan also emphasizes the use of the interchanging and harmonization of the hard and soft forces. During the process of Da Shou, it is best if you could stiffen up the inside upper arm but soften the outside forearm. When your arms and hands are in motion, they should be soft until they are touching wherever of your opponent's body. The more widely known is that Wing Chun Quan has been as much as similar to He Quan but a few different from it. In their movements with one's circling hands, there are also single, double, still and stepping Tui Shou. Wing Chun's specialized rolling arms have been very unique. You'll touch and feel the attacking force made by your opponent and get the best point to contact with your specialized techniques as Tan (spreading over), Bang (blocking by your arm), and Fu (squat down a little). Your purpose is to destroy your opponent's attacking plan with your movements in arc, in tri-angle and some natural re-bounced forces. You are supposed to get the opportunities to hit your empty-headed opponent in a speed in the least of time. The principle in your hitting would be that you should be protecting your mid-point and attacking from there, using your side force to block the coming straight force made by your opponent but using your straight force to make his side force away, stopping his force when it is reaching you whereas following it when it is returning and punching along straightly by throwing your hands ahead. It is important that both parties must stick their hands together in these exercises to get all the Xu (emptiness), Shi (solidness) and Bian Hua (changing) with both sides. Tai Ji's "listening to the forces" describes them all. There is a common saying "you touch your opponent listening to all the Xu Shi Bian Hua without making or heating any sound." You cannot rely on your eyes to faster react in actual combat. Some Yong Chun masters said, "Your eyes should be on your fists," Furthermore, you must keep in mind that the above-mentioned Tui Shou skills will be exercises but not real fights. There will be no predictable moves in actual combat, your opponent might be fighting apart from you or hitting you in real touching. General Qi again said, "You must test what you've learnt." The aforementioned exercises are very good in testing your skills in Kung-fu indeed.
Notes: General Qi Jiguan was the Chief Commanding General leading the fights against Japanese Samurais, who occupied many lands of China, when they were obsessed in killing and raping. The other successful achievement he did was reviewing most kinds of Chinese Kung-fu then, selecting those most useful forms and styles and redesigning any or all of them. He also redesigned some weapons fighting Japanese. Soon all Japanese Samurais fled when they heard the name of General Qi.
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